These formations and therefore the river and community are called chat-a-wa-pis-shkag in Swampy Cree. The overall purpose of the project was to help the regional Council and its associations develop a strategy for natural resource co-management, self-government, and sustainable regional development. Their results published in , showed "that geographically extensive land use for hunting and fishing persists in the Mushkegowuk region, some km2. Although the First Nations control only km2 0. The town or hamlet of Attawapiskat now covers 1. It is in the James Bay drainage basin. It is in the Kenora District which is in the extreme north of Ontario.
See this page in: Hungarian , Russian , Spanish People who ask about carbon 14C dating usually want to know about the radiometric  dating methods that are claimed to give millions and billions of years—carbon dating can only give thousands of years. People wonder how millions of years could be squeezed into the biblical account of history.
This shows that they contain some excess argon, and not all of it is escaping.
The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years.
We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods. We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous. This gives us the impression that all but a small percentage of the dates computed by radiometric methods agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found, and that all of these various methods almost always give ages that agree with each other to within a few percentage points.
Since there doesn't seem to be any systematic error that could cause so many methods to agree with each other so often, it seems that there is no other rational conclusion than to accept these dates as accurate. However, this causes a problem for those who believe based on the Bible that life has only existed on the earth for a few thousand years, since fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be over million years old by radiometric methods, and some fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be billions of years old.
If these dates are correct, this calls the Biblical account of a recent creation of life into question. After study and discussion of this question, I now believe that the claimed accuracy of radiometric dating methods is a result of a great misunderstanding of the data, and that the various methods hardly ever agree with each other, and often do not agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found.
I believe that there is a great need for this information to be made known, so I am making this article available in the hopes that it will enlighten others who are considering these questions. Even the creationist accounts that I have read do not adequately treat these issues. At the start, let me clarify that my main concern is not the age of the earth, the moon, or the solar system, but rather the age of life, that is, how long has life existed on earth.
Problems with the U-Pb Radioisotope Dating Methods—1. Common Pb
Stansfield Macmillan, , pp. All quotations are consecutive, except where noted. The quotations are presented here in the order in which they appear in the book; since Patton quotes them out of order, I have inserted notes to help keep track of them.
Dickin suggests that mixings may contribute to such isochrons.
Can science prove the age of the earth? No scientific method can prove the age of the earth and the universe, and that includes the ones we have listed here. Further, it has to be assumed that the clock was never disturbed. There is no independent natural clock against which those assumptions can be tested. For example, the amount of cratering on the moon, based on currently observed cratering rates, would suggest that the moon is quite old.
However, to draw this conclusion we have to assume that the rate of cratering has been the same in the past as it is now. And there are now good reasons for thinking that it might have been quite intense in the past, in which case the craters do not indicate an old age at all see below.
Attawapiskat First Nation
At the time that Darwin's On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was "scientifically" determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3.
This unevenness means they cannot be billions of years old, since collisions of the ring objects would eventually make the ring very uniform.
References Generic Radiometric Dating The simplest form of isotopic age computation involves substituting three measurements into an equation of four variables, and solving for the fourth. The equation is the one which describes radioactive decay: The variables in the equation are: Pnow - The quantity of the parent isotope that remains now. This is measured directly. Porig - The quantity of the parent isotope that was originally present.
This is computed from the current quantity of parent isotope plus the accumulated quantity of daughter isotope. Standard values are used, based on direct measurements. Solving the equation for "age," and incorporating the computation of the original quantity of parent isotope, we get: Potential problems for generic dating Some assumptions have been made in the discussion of generic dating, for the sake of keeping the computation simple.
Such assumptions will not always be accurate in the real world.
Age of the earth
Important We believe any unbiased reader will realize that we were fair with our treatment of the two models in the table above. Yet, although the theory of evolution matches the facts in some cases, evolution is still an unproven theory. By now, you may believe it should be your first choice also.
The uranyl ion forms compounds that are soluble in water, so U is a mobile element under oxidizing conditions.
Outlook Other Abstract U-Pb radioisotope dating is now the absolute dating method of first choice among geochronologists, especially using the mineral zircon. A variety of analytical instruments have also now been developed using different micro-sampling techniques coupled with mass spectrometers, thus enabling wide usage of U-Pb radioisotope dating. However, problems remain in the interpretation of the measured Pb isotopic ratios to transform them into ages.
Among them is the presence of non-radiogenic Pb of unknown composition, often referred to as common or initial Pb. There is also primordial Pb that the earth acquired when it formed, its isotopic composition determined as that of troilite in the Canyon Diablo iron meteorite. Subsequently new crustal rocks formed via partial melts from the mantle. So the Pb isotope ratios measured in these rocks today must be interpreted before their U-Pb ages can be calculated. Various methods have been devised to determine this initial or common Pb, but all involve making unprovable assumptions.
Zircon does incorporate initial Pb when it crystallizes. The amount of Pb cannot be measured independently and accurately.
Quotations about Evolution
Click here to download a PDF version of this webpage Summary The widely accepted mantle plume model e. Geological and geophysical data from the Deccan provide no support for the plume model and arguably undermine it altogether Sheth, a ,b. The interplay of several intersecting continental rift zones in India is apparently responsible for the roughly circular outcrop of the Deccan. Published Ar-Ar age data for the Lakshadweep-Chagos Ridge basalts have been seriously questioned Baksi, , , and geochemical data suggest that they likely represent post-shield volcanism Sheth et al.
I haven't read the surrounding text, so I don't know what Howells says happened.
Although they also posed new questions, the thousands of satellite photographs brought back from the Moon have permitted us to map its surface with greater accuracy than Earth could be mapped a few decades ago. We now have over kg of rocks from nine places on the Moon, rocks that have been analyzed by hundreds of scientists from many different countries. Data from a variety of experiments have revealed much about the Moon's deep interior.
As it turns out, the Moon is truly a whole new world, with rocks and surface features that provide a record of events that occurred during the first billion years of the solar system. This record is not preserved on Earth because all rocks formed during the first million years of Earth's history were recycled back into the interior.
The importance of the Moon in studying the principles of geology is that it provides an insight into the basic mechanics of planetary evolution and events that occurred early in the solar system. Much of the knowledge we have of how planets are born and of the events that transpired during the early part of their histories has been gained from studies of the Moon. At the outset, it is important to note that we assume that the physical and chemical laws that govern nature are constant.
For example, we use observations about how chemical reactions occur today, such as the combination of oxygen and hydrogen at specific temperatures and pressures to produce water, and infer that similar conditions produced the same results in the past. This is the basic assumption of all sciences. Moreover, much of what we "know" about the planets, as in all science, is a mixture of observation and theory a mixture that is always subject to change.
Scientific knowledge is pieced together slowly by observation, experiment, and inference. The account of the origin and differentiation of planets we present is such a theory or model; it explains our current understanding of facts and observations. It will certainly be revised as we continue to explore the solar system and beyond, but the basic elements of the theory are firmly established.
Inteendeel, meeste sillabusse in skole en universiteite aanvaar die konsep van evolusie as die wetenskaplike basis vir die verstaan van die fisiese kosmos soos ons dit vandag ken. A gradual process in which something changes into a different and usually more complex or better form. See Synonyms at development. The process of developing. Change in the genetic composition of a population during successive generations, as a result of natural selection acting on the genetic variation among individuals, and resulting in the development of new species.
If radial, focused flow of the upper mantle occurs instead of vertical flow as in the plume model , a potentially unlimited volume of the mantle is available for processing.
British stages[ edit ] The Tremadoc corresponds to the modern Tremadocian. The Floian corresponds to the lower Arenig; the Arenig continues until the early Darriwilian, subsuming the Dapingian. The Llanvirn occupies the rest of the Darriwilian, and terminates with it at the base of the Late Ordovician. The Sandbian represents the first half of the Caradoc; the Caradoc ends in the mid-Katian, and the Ashgill represents the last half of the Katian, plus the Hirnantian.
Gondwana started the period in equatorial latitudes and, as the period progressed, drifted toward the South Pole. Early in the Ordovician, the continents of Laurentia in present-day North America , Siberia , and Baltica present-day northern Europe were still independent continents since the break-up of the supercontinent Pannotia earlier , but Baltica began to move towards Laurentia later in the period, causing the Iapetus Ocean between them to shrink.
Idealized and simplified diagram of the Grand Canyon There are a number of lava flows on the plateau that the canyon is cut into yellow in Figure 1, above. These lava flows are Cenozoic in age, and some of them spill into the canyon. The walls of the canyon are mostly cut into horizontal rock layers of Paleozoic age green in Figure 1, above.
There is an angular unconformity at the bottom of the Paleozoic layers.
Interesting insights are likely to come from such a group.