Etymology and meaning[ edit ] Commentators disagree on the definition and derivation of the word jizya: Shakir 's English translations of the Qur'an render jizya as " tax ", while Pickthal and Arberry translate it as " tribute ". Yusuf Ali prefers to transliterate the term as jizyah. Yusuf Ali considered the root meaning of jizya to be "compensation",   whereas Muhammad Asad considered it to be "satisfaction". He further adds that the root verb of jizya is j-z-y, which means 'to reward somebody for something', 'to pay what is due in return for something' and adds that it is in return for the protection of the Muslim state with all the accruing benefits and exemption from military service, and such taxes on Muslims as zakat. Morony states that the emergence of "protected status and the definition of jizya as the poll tax on non-Muslim subjects appears to have been achieved only by the early eighth century. This came as a result of growing suspicions about the loyalty of the non-Muslim population during the second civil war and of the literalist interpretation of the Quran by pious Muslims. It was also called Jawali in Jerusalem. Dhimmi Most Muslim jurists and scholars regard the jizya as a special payment collected from certain non-Muslims in return for the responsibility of protection fulfilled by Muslims against any type of aggression,          as well as for non-Muslims being exempt from military service,          and in exchange for the suppliance of poor dhimmis. In our agreement you stipulated that we protect you, but we are unable to do so.
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This has changed over the past few decades because of the dramatic advances in digital imaging technologies and computer power. One of the best examples of this was the computer artistry of Ray Downing, whose digital re-creation of Jesus based on the Shroud was documented in "The Real Face of Jesus" program that appeared on the History Channel.
In the past few years, digital artists around the world have been able to render their own interpretations of how Jesus may have appeared based on the Shroud and these show up from time to time on the internet. However, throughout all those years, not one artist has attempted to create an interpretation of what Mary, Mother of Jesus looked like based on the Shroud image.
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